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Spine

Cervical Spine Anatomy

Cervical Spine Anatomy

The spine can be divided into 4 parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral region. The cervical spine comprises of the first 7 vertebrae, which form the neck.

Thoracic Spine Anatomy

Thoracic Spine Anatomy

The thoracic spine is the central part of the spine, also called the dorsal spine, which runs from the base of the neck to the bottom of your rib cage. The thoracic spine provides the flexibility that holds the body upright and protects the organs of the chest.

Facet Joint Arthritis

Facet Joint Arthritis

Facet joints, also called zygapophyseal joints, are synovial joints located at the back of your spine, connecting the vertebrae together. Normally the facet joints are lined by a cartilage and a membrane of synovium. There are two joints between each pair of vertebrae located on either side of the spine. The facet joints provide stability for the spine.

Back Pain

Back Pain

Back pain or backache is the pain felt in the back that may originate from damage to the muscles, nerves, bones, joints or other structures in the spine. Back pain is one of the most common medical problems experienced by most people at some time in their life. It can be acute, usually lasting from a few days to a few weeks, or chronic, lasting for more than three months.

Neck Pain

Neck Pain

Common neck pain may occur from muscle strain or tension from everyday activities including poor posture, prolonged use of a computer and sleeping in an uncomfortable position.

Low Back Pain

Low Back Pain

Low back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range from simple or dull pain to sudden and sharp pain. If the pain persists for a few days, it is acute pain whereas if it continues for more than 3 months, it is considered as chronic pain.

Arm Pain of Spinal Origin

Arm Pain of Spinal Origin

Arm pain of spinal origin can be described as discomfort or pain felt anywhere in the arm including the wrist, elbow, or shoulder as a result of a pinched nerve (nerve compression) or irritated nerve in the spinal cord. The pain can occur as a dull constant pain or a sudden sharp pain that can develop suddenly or over time.

Cervical Fracture

Cervical Fracture

Cervical fractures are common in motor vehicle accidents, sports activities and falls. The second, sixth and seventh cervical vertebrae are frequently involved in fractures, which may injure the spinal cord.

Fractures of the Spine

Fractures of the Spine

A fracture of the spine is a break in the bone continuity of the spinal vertebrae or vertebral column. The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord or spinal nerves can cause changes in sensation, strength, and other body functions.

Vertebral Compression Fractures

Vertebral Compression Fractures

Back pain is an indication of stress fractures known as vertebral compression fractures. Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, loss of height and spinal deformity.

Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

Fracture of the Thoracic and Lumbar Spine

The backbone is made of small bones arranged from the neck down to the buttocks, one above the other. The region at the chest and lower back are called the thoracic and lumbar spine, respectively. These are the two regions commonly affected by a fracture.

Pathological Fractures of the Spine

Pathological Fractures of the Spine

Pathological fractures are broken bones in an area already weakened by another disease, not by an injury. Some underlying diseases can weaken the spinal bones making them brittle and eventually causing a fracture or break in the bone.

Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis

Spondylodiscitis is an infection of the intervertebral discs (between the vertebrae) along with the vertebrae (one of many small bones forming the spine). The condition is a primary infection of one or more intervertebral discs (discitis) with secondary infection of one or more vertebrae (spondylitis).

Microdiscectomy

Microdiscectomy

The spine is made up of small bony segments called vertebrae. These vertebrae are categorized into cervical or neck vertebrae, thoracic or upper back vertebrae, lumbar or lower back vertebrae and the sacrum within the pelvis. A cylindrical bundle of nerve fibers called the spinal cord passes through the entire vertebral column and branches out to the various parts of our body.

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a condition that commonly affects the spine. It is characterized by calcification (bony hardening) of ligaments, tendons and joint capsule insertions. Usually, the upper portion of the back (thoracic spine) is affected, but it may also involve the neck (cervical spine) and lower back (lumbar spine).

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

When this passageway becomes compressed, the condition is termed as thoracic outlet syndrome. It generally occurs within the age group of 20 to 60 years and is more common in females than in males.

Lumbar Radiculopathy

Lumbar Radiculopathy

Back pain is a common condition affecting approximately 80% of the population at some point in their lives. The area usually affected is the lower back (lumbar region) as it bears most of the upper body’s weight. Trauma to the spine, age and overuse can result in deterioration of the vertebral bones and joints or bulging of the discs.

Lumbar Herniated Disc

Lumbar Herniated Disc

A herniated disc is a condition in which the outer fibers (annulus) of the intervertebral disc are damaged, causing the soft inner material of the nucleus pulposus to rupture out of its space. It is the most common cause of lower back pain and pain that radiates down the leg (radiculopathy).

Lumbar Stenosis

Lumbar Stenosis

Lumbar stenosis is the compression of spinal nerves caused by the narrowing of the spinal canal. It is one of the common causes of lower back pain. Spinal stenosis can also affect the spine in the neck region.

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

Lumbar Degenerative Disc Disease

Lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common cause of lower back pain. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate. Degenerative disc disease is not actually a disease but refers to the changes in the spine that occur as a part of the normal aging process.

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Lumbar Disc Herniation

Lumbar disc herniation is the most common cause of lower back pain and leg pain (sciatica). Aging, injury or trauma may cause the annulus fibrosus to tear, resulting in protrusion of the nucleus pulposus. This may compress the spinal nerves and/or spinal canal. The bulging disc may even break open, releasing the gelatinous material, which is a chemical irritant, causing inflammation of the spinal nerves.

Disc Herniation

Disc Herniation

Disc herniation is a condition where the central nucleus pushes through the outer edge of the disc, causing a bulge that compresses the spinal nerves.

Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis

Spondylolysis is a stress fracture in the vertebra that may progress into spondylolisthesis, a condition where the vertebra gets displaced from the spinal column. Spondylolysis is the cause of frequent low back pain in children. It is more common among children and teenagers who participate actively in sports such as football, weightlifting, and gymnastics.

Cervical Spondylosis

Cervical Spondylosis

Cervical spondylosis, also called arthritis of the neck, is an age-related medical condition characterized by deterioration of spinal joints, vertebrae, discs, and ligaments in your neck.

Spondylolisthesis

Spondylolisthesis

Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. Spondyloarthropathies can occur at any age, however, they occur more often in young males.

Spine Deformities

Spine Deformities

The spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of a series of irregularly-shaped bones appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when viewed from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.

Sciatica

Sciatica

The sciatic nerve is the longest nerve in your body. It begins in the lower back and extends through the buttocks down the back of each leg to the thighs and feet.

Scoliosis

Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a condition characterized by the abnormal curvature of the spine that causes a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity, making the spine look like the letter “C” or “S” instead of the letter “I”. Scoliosis can affect either the mid or lower back. Scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative Disc Disease

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) refers to the gradual deterioration of the intervertebral discs between the vertebrae. DDD is a misnomer as it is not actually a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resilience and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to advancing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture or poor body mechanics.

Spinal Tumors

Spinal Tumors

A spine tumor is the abnormal growth of uncontrolled tissues or cells in and around the spinal cord. Tumors can either be cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign). Tumors that begin in the spine are called primary spinal tumors. Tumors that spread to the spine from other parts such as the breast, prostate, lung, and other areas are called secondary spinal tumors.

Cauda Equina Syndrome

Cauda Equina Syndrome

What Cauda equina syndrome is an emergency condition characterized by persistent severe lower back pain caused by the compression of a bundle of spinal nerves (cauda equina) at the end of the spinal cord (lower back and hip region). If not treated promptly, it can lead to permanent paralysis of the legs, or bowel, bladder, and sexual problems.

Kyphosis

Kyphosis

Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a C-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis. Kyphosis most commonly affects the thoracic spine, but can involve the cervical and lumbar portions too.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

Sacroiliac joint dysfunction or sacroiliac joint pain is one of the common causes of low back pain.

Chordoma

Chordoma

Chordoma is a rare, slow-growing malignant tumor that develops in the spine and skull bones. It is thought to form from the remnants of the notochord (a preliminary structure present in a developing baby in the womb, which eventually forms the spinal cord).

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Sacroiliac joints are present in the lower back where the sacrum part of the vertebrae joins the iliac bones. The term ankylosis stands for loss of mobility of the spine, whereas spondylitis means inflammation of the spine. Therefore, ankylosing spondylitis is a condition where chronic inflammation of the spine and sacroiliac joint results in complete fusion of the vertebrae, leading to pain and stiffness in the spine.

Spondyloarthropathies

Spondyloarthropathies

Spondyloarthropathies are a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the spine and joints. Spondyloarthropathies can occur at any age, however, they occur more often in young males.

Lordosis

Lordosis

The spine forms a natural curve at the neck, torso, and lower back, which allows it to absorb shock and hold the weight of your head. When this curvature is accentuated at the lower back, it is called lordosis. Lordosis may develop during childhood as a benign condition or later in life because of poor posture, osteoporosis, obesity, discitis (inflammation of the intervertebral discs) or spondylolisthesis (mal-alignment of the vertebrae).

Thoracic Myelopathy

Thoracic Myelopathy

Thoracic myelopathy is a disorder resulting from severe spinal cord compression in the thoracic region. The spinal cord in this region typically gets compressed as a result of bulging or herniated discs, spinal trauma, or bone spurs causing severe pain and discomfort.

Cervical Deformities

Cervical Deformities

The spine is made up of 33 small bones called vertebrae and is known as the spinal column or vertebral column. It can be divided into 5 parts: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, and coccyx region. The cervical spine is comprised of the first 7 vertebrae, which supports the neck and the head.

Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

Lumbar Facet Joint Arthropathy

A joint is a place where two bones contact each other. Arthropathy means any disease of the joints. Lumbar facet joint arthropathy occurs when the facet joints degenerate or wear out over time due to aging or arthritis.

Psoas Abscess

Psoas Abscess

A psoas abscess is a rare medical condition that is defined as a painful collection of pus in the psoas muscle of the spine, located in the lower lumbar region of the spine. The muscle extends through the pelvis to the femur.

Spinal Infection

Spinal Infection

A spinal infection is described as an infection of the spine. It can occur in various locations of the spine i.e., intervertebral disc space, vertebral column, spinal canal, and nearby soft tissues.

Thoracic Nerve Compression

Thoracic Nerve Compression

Thoracic nerve compression refers to a compressed nerve root in the thoracic region of the spine, also called the upper back.

Spine Trauma

Spine Trauma

Spine trauma is defined as an injury or damage to any region of the spine. The spine extends from the neck to the lower back and consists of the vertebral bones which surround and protect the spinal cord. Damage to the spinal cord or spinal nerves can cause changes in sensation, strength, and other body functions.

Peripheral Nerve Compression

Peripheral Nerve Compression

The human body has 2 nervous systems, the central nervous system that includes the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system that includes a network of nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord.

Poor Balance

Poor Balance

Poor balance can be defined as a sense of unsteadiness on your feet due to dizzy spells or lightheadedness, fainting, blackouts, or loss of consciousness.

Difficulty Walking

Difficulty Walking

Walking is a complex interaction among multiple systems of the body. Proper walking is a result of balance, sensory function, reflexes, motor function, and many other systems working in conjunction.

Spina Bifida

Spina Bifida

Spina bifida is a congenital condition (birth defect) in which there is abnormal development of the back bones, spinal cord, surrounding nerves, and the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the spinal cord. This is a neurological condition that causes a section of the spinal cord and the surrounding structures to develop outside, instead of inside, the body.

Compression of Thoracic Nerve

Compression of Thoracic Nerve

Nerves can undergo compression or become pinched by surrounding structures as they emerge from the spine, a condition called radiculopathy. Nerve compression mostly occurs in the neck or lower back regions which have more mobility, but it can sometimes involve the upper back or thoracic region. Thoracic

Sagittal Imbalance

Sagittal Imbalance

The spine has three natural curves when viewed from the side, an inward curve in the neck and lower spine called lordosis and an outward curve in the mid-back called kyphosis. Normal spine curvature keeps your head in line with your pelvis so that the stresses on your spine are well balanced.

Cervical Radiculopathy/Myelopathy

Cervical Radiculopathy/Myelopathy

The spine, also called the backbone, is designed to give us stability, smooth movement, as well as provide a corridor of protection for the delicate spinal cord. It is made up of bony segments called vertebrae and fibrous tissue called intervertebral discs.

Discitis

Discitis

Discitis, also called discitis, is inflammation between the spaces of the intervertebral discs in the spine. Intervertebral discs are located between the vertebrae and spaces between them are called intervertebral disc spaces. Swelling in these spaces puts pressure on the discs and results in pain.

Cervical Herniated Disc

Cervical Herniated Disc

The cervical region consists of 7 cervical vertebrae (C1-C7), with intervertebral discs between each vertebra that function to provide flexibility to the backbone. Intervertebral discs are soft, compressible structures consisting of a hard-outer ring called the annulus and a gel-like center called the nucleus.

Cervical Stenosis

Cervical Stenosis

Cervical stenosis refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal that protects the spinal cord and its branching nerves.

Spine Bone Spurs

Spine Bone Spurs

Spine bone spurs, also called osteophytes, are bony projections that develop in the spine’s facet joints where cartilage has worn out or along the vertebral body’s endplates edges. It can grow at any level of the spinal column such as the low and mid-back and in the neck.

Whiplash

Whiplash

Whiplash is a soft tissue injury to the neck, usually caused by a sudden forceful jerk commonly occurring because of an automobile accident, sports injuries or an accidental fall. Headache may develop immediately or after a short period of time after the injury. Sometimes, whiplash may also be referred to as neck strain, neck sprain or hyperextension injury.

Cervical Degenerative Disorder

Cervical Degenerative Disorder

Cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a misnomer as it is not a disease but a condition that affects the strength, resiliency and structural integrity of the intervertebral discs due to increasing age, trauma, injury, repetitive movement, improper posture, or poor body mechanics.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition caused by the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord).

Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

Adult Degenerative Scoliosis

Adult degenerative scoliosis is characterized by side to side or lateral bending of the spine in adults. Degenerative scoliosis can involve either the mid-back and/or lower back region of the spine.

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Idiopathic Scoliosis

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, either to the left or to the right. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a type of scoliosis that occurs in children between 10 and 16 years of age. The term “idiopathic” means that the cause of scoliosis is unknown.

Metastatic Tumours

Metastatic Tumours

A metastatic tumor is a lump in your spine that is produced by cancer elsewhere in your body. It is the more common type of tumor in the spine. Though metastatic tumor can occur anywhere along your spine, most happen in your thoracic (mid-to-upper back) region.

Radiculopathy

Radiculopathy

Certain diseases or mechanical compression of these spinal nerves due to deformities in the vertebral column can lead to radiculopathy.

Degenerative Spinal Conditions

Degenerative Spinal Conditions

A degenerative condition is a continuous deterioration of a tissue or an organ in your body over time.

Non-Surgical Treatment for Disc Disease

Non-Surgical Treatment for Disc Disease

The spinal column consists of vertebral bones stacked one on top of the other, surrounding and protecting the spinal cord. Soft cartilaginous discs present between the vertebrae support the spine, act as cushions against stress and permit spine mobility. These discs can undergo damage or degeneration with age, overuse or injury, and is referred to as disc disease.

Lumbar Laminectomy

Lumbar Laminectomy

Lumbar laminectomy, also known as decompression laminectomy, is a spinal surgery performed to relieve excess pressure on the spinal nerve(s) in the lumbar (lower back) region. The purpose of laminectomy is to remove the lamina or roof of the vertebra and provide enough space for the nerves to exit the spinal canal (decompression).

Lumbar Foraminotomy

Lumbar Foraminotomy

A lumbar foraminotomy is a surgical procedure that decompresses the spinal nerves by removing bone and other tissues that obstruct the neural foramen.

Lumbar Fusion

Lumbar Fusion

Spinal fusion, also called arthrodesis, is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae (bones) within the spine. Lumbar fusion is the procedure of fusing the vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine (lower back). A piece of bone, taken from other parts of the body or donated from a bone bank is transplanted between the adjacent vertebrae.

Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement

Lumbar Artificial Disc Replacement

Lumbar artificial disc replacement is a surgical procedure employed to remove and replace a damaged or worn out disc in the lumbar or lower part of your spine that has become painful and debilitating with an artificial or synthetic disc. An artificial disc is made of metal or plastic or a combination of both and is designed to support the vertebrae while still allowing forward and backward bending, side-to-side bending, and turning.

Lumbar Decompression

Lumbar Decompression

Lumbar decompression is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure over the compressed nerves in the lower spine (lumbar region).

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

Lumbar Sympathetic Block

A lumbar sympathetic block is an injection of a local anesthetic and steroid that is injected into or around the sympathetic nerves to block the transmission of pain impulses from the legs or lower back, thereby relieving pain.

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a type of spinal fusion procedure in which bone graft is placed between the affected vertebrae in the lower back (lumbar) region through an incision on the patient’s back.

Posterior Lumbar Fusion

Posterior Lumbar Fusion

Spinal fusion, also called arthrodesis, is a surgical technique used to join two or more vertebrae (bones) within the spine. Lumbar fusion is the fusion the vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine (lower back).

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Spinal fusion is a surgical technique that joins two or more vertebrae in the spine to minimize the pain caused by the movement of these vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae in the lumbar portion of the spine is called lumbar fusion. This surgery can be performed as an open or minimally invasive procedure.

Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

Lumbar Endoscopic Discectomy

Lumbar endoscopic discectomy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure to treat a herniated or ruptured disc and relieve pressure on the spinal nerves.

Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion

Posterolateral Lumbar Fusion

Posterolateral lumbar fusion is a surgical technique that involves correcting spinal problems from the back of the spine by placing bone graft between segments in the back and leaving the disc space intact.

Lower Back (Lumbar) Surgery

Lower Back (Lumbar) Surgery

Lower back pain is one of the most common health problems experienced by most individuals, at different phases of their lives.

Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

Lumbar Corpectomy and Fusion

Lumbar corpectomy and fusion is a surgical technique performed to remove the vertebral bone or disc material between the vertebrae to alleviate pressure on the spinal cord and spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region.

Lumbar Facetectomy and Foraminotomy

Lumbar Facetectomy and Foraminotomy

Facetectomy and foraminotomy are the most common spinal surgical procedures recommended for chronic pain due to spinal nerve compression. Lumbar foraminotomy is a decompression surgery involving the removal of bone and tissue obstructing the neuroforamen to release the pressure on the spinal nerve roots.

Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Lumbar interbody fusion (LIF) surgery is a surgical technique that involves the removal of a damaged intervertebral disc and the insertion of a bone graft into the disc space created between the two adjoining vertebrae. Bone grafts promote healing and facilitate fusion. Screws and rods are used to stabilize the spine during the healing process.

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Discectomy

Lumbar discectomy is a spinal surgery that involves the removal of the damaged intervertebral disc(s) to relieve pressure on the spinal nerves (decompression) in the lumbar (lower back) region, which forms the lower portion of the spine and comprises of five vertebrae (L1-L5). A minimally invasive technique is implemented to perform the surgery.

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Anterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion

Anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a surgery performed to correct spinal problems in the lower back. The surgery can be implemented either as an open surgery or minimally invasive technique.

Minimally Invasive TLIF

Minimally Invasive TLIF

Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a minimally invasive fusion of the vertebrae of the lumbar region (lower back). It is designed to provide stability to the spine and treat back and leg pain.

Spinal Fusion

Spinal Fusion

Spinal fusion is the surgical technique of combining two or more vertebrae. A fusion of the vertebrae involves the insertion of secondary bone tissue obtained either from an autograft (tissues from your own body) or allograft (tissues from another person) to enhance the bone healing process.

Spinal Decompression

Spinal Decompression

Spinal decompression is a treatment to relieve pressure on one or many “pinched nerves” in the spinal column. It can be achieved either surgically or by non-surgical methods. Spinal decompression is used to treat conditions that cause chronic backaches such as herniated disc, disc bulge, sciatica, and spinal stenosis.

Laminectomy

Laminectomy

Laminectomy refers to the removal or cutting of the lamina (roof) of the vertebral bones to provide space for the nerves to exit from the spine. It can also be performed to relieve the symptoms of the narrowed spinal canal known as spinal stenosis.

Kyphoplasty

Kyphoplasty

Balloon kyphoplasty is a spine surgery that relieves back pain caused by a vertebral compression fracture. The aim of balloon kyphoplasty is to relieve pain, stabilize the fracture and restore the vertebral body height.

Spinal Cord Stimulator

Spinal Cord Stimulator

A spinal cord stimulator is a device that sends electrical impulses to the areas of the spinal cord causing pain and interferes with the transmission of pain signals to the brain. It blocks the brain's ability to sense pain in the stimulated areas, thus relieving pain without the side effects that medications can cause.

Spine Deformity Surgery

Spine Deformity Surgery

The spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of the body. It helps to hold your body upright. It consists of several irregularly-shaped bones called vertebrae appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves when seen from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery

Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) is the latest technology available to perform spinal surgeries through small, less than one-inch-long incisions. It involves the use of special surgical instruments, devices and advanced imaging techniques to visualize and perform the surgery through such small incisions.

Endoscopic Spine Surgery

Endoscopic Spine Surgery

Endoscopic spine surgery is a minimally invasive spine surgery that uses specialized video cameras and instruments to remove the herniated disc through very small incisions.

Removal of Facet Joint Cyst

Removal of Facet Joint Cyst

Facet joint cysts, also called synovial cysts, are benign, fluid-filled sacs that develop due to degeneration of the facet joints of the spine. These cysts normally occur in the lumbar spine (lower back) area and may not cause problems, but when large enough, they can cause spinal stenosis or narrowing of the spinal canal leading to compression of the spinal cord or spinal nerves.

Lower Back Pain Surgery

Lower Back Pain Surgery

Lower back pain can be disabling; however, most cases heal with time (2-12 weeks) and with conservative therapy. However, surgery is suggested when symptoms persist and begin to affect your daily activities.

Neck Surgery

Neck Surgery

Neck surgery is a surgical procedure employed for the treatment of neck pain when conservative measures such as physical rehabilitation, medications, and rest have failed to provide any relief to your neck pain.

Spinal Tumor Surgery

Spinal Tumor Surgery

A spinal tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue surrounding or found within your spinal cord and/or spinal column.

Posterior Cervical Decompression

Posterior Cervical Decompression

Posterior cervical decompression is a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck to relieve pressure over compressed nerves in the cervical spine region caused by inflamed spinal tissue or nerves, by removing portions of the cervical vertebrae.

Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy

Posterior Cervical Foraminotomy

Posterior cervical foraminotomy is a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck to relieve symptoms of a pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit the spine and travel through the body, and creating more space for the spinal nerve to pass through.

Posterior Thoracic Fusion

Posterior Thoracic Fusion

Posterior thoracic fusion is a spinal fusion procedure performed through an incision on the back (posterior) of the patient in which two or more vertebrae of the thoracic spine (mid back) are joined together, eliminating any movement between them. This procedure is performed by placing bone grafts or bone graft substitutes in between the affected vertebrae to promote bone growth and eventually fuse the vertebrae into a single, solid bone.

Thoracic Corpectomy

Thoracic Corpectomy

Thoracic corpectomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pressure on a nerve at the thoracic region (upper and middle back) by removing the source of the compression.

Surgery for Scoliosis

Surgery for Scoliosis

Surgery for scoliosis is recommended when the spinal curvature is severe and is either worsening or is a cause of severe pain or difficulty in breathing. The surgery is aimed at rectifying the spinal curvature, stabilizing the spine and preventing it from worsening. The rectification of the curved spine involves removal of one or more intervertebral discs (discectomy), vertebrae or spinous processes from the curved segment of the spine.

Spine Osteotomy

Spine Osteotomy

Spine osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a section of the spinal bone is cut and removed to allow for correction of spinal malalignment.

Robotic Spine Surgery

Robotic Spine Surgery

Robotic spine surgery is a procedure where your surgeon is assisted by a robotic system to perform surgery to the spine. Precision is very important when performing spine surgery. Robotic systems are becoming increasingly popular in the medical fraternity as it offers better precision and reduces the risk of complications associated with conventional surgery.

Lumbar Spinal Bracing

Lumbar Spinal Bracing

Lumbar braces are external devices used to restrict the movement of the lumbar spine and provide support and stability to the lower back region, to relieve back pain and promote healing after surgery or injury.

Fracture Stabilisation

Fracture Stabilisation

A spinal fracture refers to a break in any of the bones that make up the spine. It can occur due to trauma such as a traffic accident, fall from a significant height or weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis or a tumor. The thoracic or lumbar spine (upper and lower back) are the most common locations for spinal fractures.

Spinal Infection Debridement

Spinal Infection Debridement

The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. These are separated by intervertebral discs which provide cushioning between the vertebral bones. A spinal infection may affect any part of your spine, i.e. the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.

Spinal Infection Decompression

Spinal Infection Decompression

The spine is made up of bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. These are separated by intervertebral discs which provide cushioning between the vertebral bones. A spinal infection may affect any part of your spine including the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.

Spinal Infection Stabilisation

Spinal Infection Stabilisation

The spine is made up of many bones called vertebrae which surround and protect the spinal cord. Intervertebral discs between the vertebral bones provide cushioning. A spinal infection may affect any part of the spine including the vertebral column, intervertebral discs or the soft tissues surrounding the spine.

Cervical Arthroplasty

Cervical Arthroplasty

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore joint function by replacing a damaged joint with an artificial joint called a prosthesis.

Complex Spinal Surgery

Complex Spinal Surgery

Complex spine surgery is a type of back surgery involving a fusion of six or more vertebrae. The vertebrae are a series of small interlocking bones extending from the skull to the pelvis (hip) to form your spinal column or backbone. Spinal fusion helps in forming a solid bridge of bone that stabilizes your back.

In-Office Cervical Injections

In-Office Cervical Injections

In-office cervical injections are administered in a medical office or clinic setting to provide relief from pain or inflammation affecting the neck and upper back. The injection is made in the patient’s epidural space, which is the area between the outermost covering of the spinal cord, the dura mater, and the wall of the spinal canal.

Cervical/Lumbar Traction

Cervical/Lumbar Traction

Excessive pressure on the spine from injury or stress may cause discs present between the vertebrae to herniate. Nerves exiting and entering the spine may become compressed by these herniated discs.

Disc Decompression

Disc Decompression

Acute or chronic injury can cause a spinal disc to herniate or rupture. The damaged disc may compress against the spinal cord or the nerves that branch out through the vertebral bones, leading to pain, loss of sensation and/or motor function in the part of the body supplied by the nerve.

Cervical Laminectomy

Cervical Laminectomy

Laminectomy refers to the removal or cutting of the lamina (roof) of the vertebral bones to provide space for the nerves to exit from the spine.

Cervical Foraminotomy

Cervical Foraminotomy

Cervical foraminotomy is a surgical procedure performed to relieve the symptoms of a pinched or compressed spinal nerve by enlarging the neural foramen, an opening for the nerve roots to exit the spine and travel through the body. The neural foramen forms a protective passageway for nerves that transmit signals among the spinal cord and the rest of the body parts.

Outpatient Spine Surgery

Outpatient Spine Surgery

Outpatient spine surgery is an operative procedure that does not require an overnight stay at the hospital. It is also called ambulatory or same-day surgery. Improvement in surgical techniques, modern pain management, and rehabilitation protocols allows surgeons to perform certain operative techniques of the spine (from cervical to lumbar region), with a minimally invasive technique on an outpatient basis.

Cervical Spine Fusion

Cervical Spine Fusion

Your spine consists of a spinal cord supported by a series of interlocking bones called vertebrae. The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine situated in the neck region. It has seven vertebrae, separated and cushioned by spongy intervertebral discs. The vertebrae and discs may get damaged by injury, disease or wear-and-tear, compromising the cervical spine.

Posterior Cervical Fusion

Posterior Cervical Fusion

Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae is also known as arthrodesis. Sometimes, metallic plates may be used for fixing the vertebrae, this is also known as instrumentation.

Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion

Posterior Cervical Laminectomy and Fusion

Posterior cervical fusion (PCF), a surgical procedure performed through the back of the neck, involves joining or fusing two or more damaged cervical vertebrae. The fusion of vertebrae is also known as arthrodesis. Sometimes, metallic plates may be used for fixing the vertebrae, this is also known as instrumentation.

Cervical Laminoplasty

Cervical Laminoplasty

Laminectomy refers to the removal or cutting of the lamina (roof) of the vertebral bones to provide space for the nerves to exit from the spine.

Image-Guided Spine Surgery

Image-Guided Spine Surgery

The spine is a complex 3-dimensional structure that is interspersed with a complex lattice of delicate blood vessels and nerves. Trauma to these structures during surgery is a big concern in spinal surgery. The complexity and increased need for precision in thoracic spine surgeries have led to the introduction of computers to assist in many spinal procedures.

Lumbar Facet Block

Lumbar Facet Block

A facet block is a procedure in which a combination of a local anesthetic and a corticosteroid is injected into a facet joint. A lumbar facet block prevents the transmission of pain signals from the lower back.

Lumbar Medial Branch Block

Lumbar Medial Branch Block

A medial branch block is a procedure in which a mixture of a local anesthetic with or without a corticosteroid is injected near the medial branch nerves supplying a facet joint. A lumbar medial branch block prevents the transmission of pain signals from the lower back.

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression

Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression

Minimally invasive lumbar decompression or mild® is a procedure developed by Vertos Medical to treat lumbar spinal stenosis by relieving pressure on the spinal nerves.

Tumour Decompression

Tumour Decompression

In medicine, decompression is a surgical procedure involving the excision or repositioning of a structure compressing any other structure in your body in order to relieve the pressure.

Tumour Stabilisation

Tumour Stabilisation

Tumor stabilization is a surgical procedure performed to strengthen and support your spine when it is weakened or in danger of breaking due to a tumor growth. It is typically carried out after a surgery called tumor decompression, which involves the removal or shrinking of the tumor.

Discography

Discography

Discography or a discogram is a procedure to evaluate back pain. It helps identify a painful spinal disc.

In-Office Lumbar Injections

In-Office Lumbar Injections

In-office lumbar injections are steroid shots administered to you in your physician’s clinical or office setting to relieve low back pain. These shots involve injecting a local anesthetic and an anti-inflammatory steroid into the lumbar (lower back) area of your spine. Your doctor decides on the appropriate injection depending on the source of the pain in your lumbar area.

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

Artificial Cervical Disc Replacement

Artificial cervical disc replacement is a spine surgery to replace a degenerated (deteriorated) disc in the neck with an artificial disc. The artificial disc, like the natural healthy disc, is used to replace the degenerated disc. It restores the height between the two cervical vertebrae, enlarging the neural foramen (nerve passageway in the spine) and relieving the pressure on the spinal nerves.

Cervical Epidurals

Cervical Epidurals

A cervical epidural is an injection of medication into the epidural space in the lower section of the cervical region to provide relief from pain or inflammation affecting the neck and upper back. The epidural space is the space between the outermost covering of the spinal cord (dura mater) and the wall of the spinal canal and runs along the length of your spinal cord.

Minimally Invasive Cervical Discectomy

Minimally Invasive Cervical Discectomy

A cervical discectomy or decompressive spinal procedure is an operative procedure that relieves pressure on the spinal nerves and/or spinal cord by partially or completely removing the intervertebral disc that is herniated and/or bony material (bone spur). Cervical discectomy can be performed using a minimally invasive approach if you are suitable.

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure to treat fractures of the spinal vertebral bones. During this procedure, your doctor inserts a needle through your skin into the fractured vertebra and injects bone cement. The cement hardens and provides strength and stability to the vertebra.

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Fusion

Anterior Cervical Discectomy with Fusion

Anterior cervical discectomy with fusion is an operative procedure to relieve compression or pressure on nerve roots and/or the spinal cord due to a herniated disc or bone spur in the neck. The vertebra is approached from the from (anterior) of your neck.

Lumbar Epidurals

Lumbar Epidurals

Lumbar epidurals are injections to treat and relieve low back pain. A lumbar epidural involves injecting a local anesthetic and an anti-inflammatory steroid into the epidural space of the lower spine (lower back) to reduce inflammation causing the pain.

Lumbar Discectomy

Lumbar Discectomy

A lumbar discectomy is a surgical procedure performed to treat a herniated or ruptured disc and relieve pressure on the spinal nerves.

Spinal Nerve Blocks

Spinal Nerve Blocks

A spinal nerve block is the injection of an anesthetic and steroid medication around the spinal nerve root to diagnose or treat pain.

Thoracic Vertebroplasty

Thoracic Vertebroplasty

Osteoporosis is a “silent” disease characterized by weakening of bones, making them more susceptible to fractures (vertebral compression fractures), typically in the hip and spine. Vertebral compression fractures can also occur with a metastatic tumor, multiple myeloma, and vertebral hemangioma.

Facet joint

Thoracic Facet Joint Injection

Facet joints are small joints present between the vertebral bones including the vertebral bones of the thorax (upper back). The bones in these joints are covered by cartilage and a capsule filled with synovial fluid surrounds the joint reducing friction.

Medial Branch Block Injections

Medial Branch Block Injections

A medial branch block is an injection of a local anesthetic administered near the medial branch nerves to temporarily block the pain signal carried from the facet joints of the spine to the brain. It assists your doctor in diagnosing the cause of your back pain.

Facet Injections

Facet Injections

A minimally invasive treatment called facet injection offers symptomatic relief from back pain caused by inflammation of the facet joints; however, this is not a permanent solution for the condition. The objective of the treatment is to suppress pain so that normal activities can be resumed and you can perform physical therapy exercises.

Piriformis Muscle Injection

Piriformis Muscle Injection

A piriformis muscle injection is used to alleviate the spasm and pain of sciatica. The injection comprises an anaesthetic and steroid to reduce the spasm.

Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

Transforaminal Epidural Steroid Injection

The epidural space of the spine is the area between the vertebral bones and the protective dura sac that surrounds the spinal cord and nerves.

Nutrition and Your Spine

Nutrition and Your Spine

Nutrients are the chemical components present in food, which provide energy for carrying out normal physiological functions and aid in various metabolic processes of the body.

Spine Medications

Spine Medications

Medications play an effective role in the treatment of back or neck pain. Your doctor may prescribe several medications to help reduce pain and associated symptoms that are caused by unhealthy spinal conditions or deformities.

Complications of Spinal Surgery

Complications of Spinal Surgery

Possible complications may occur before surgery, during surgery, and after surgery.

Spine Comprehensive Medicine

Spine Comprehensive Medicine

Spine comprehensive medicine involves comprehensive care of acute or chronic neck or back injuries or conditions. It aims at minimizing your pain, making you as functional as possible and preventing future injury.

Spine Rehabilitation

Spine Rehabilitation

Dysfunction of the spine can be severely debilitating to one’s ability to perform activities at both home and work. Pain in the lumbar spine (lower back) is the number one reason for missed days of work, followed by the pain of the cervical spine (neck).

Healthy Back Tips

Healthy Back Tips

Back and neck pain is the most common health problems experienced by most people, at some point in their lives. People with back pain or neck pain may have trouble performing daily routine activities.

Proper Lifting

Proper Lifting

Lifting heavy weights and improper lifting of weights is one of the foremost causes of neck pain or lower back pain. Practicing proper lifting techniques is essential to avoid strain on your neck and back.

Atlas Orthopaedics
970 Woodstock Parkway, Suite 310, Woodstock, GA 30188