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Foot & Ankle

What is the Normal Anatomy of the Foot and Ankle?

The foot and ankle form complex joints that are involved in movement and providing stability and balance to the body. The foot and ankle consist of 26 bones, 33 joints, and many muscles, tendons, and ligaments.

Bones of the Ankle

The ankle joint connects the leg with the foot and is composed of three bones: the tibia, fibula, and talus. The tibia or shinbone and fibula or calf bone are bones of the lower leg, which articulate with the talus or ankle bone, enabling up and down movement of the foot.

Three bony bumps present on the ends of the tibia and fibula form parts of the ankle joint:

  • The medial malleolus, formed by the tibia, is found on the inside of the ankle.
  • The posterior malleolus, also formed by the tibia, is found at the back of the ankle.
  • The lateral malleolus, formed by the fibula, is found on the outer aspect of the ankle.

Bones of the Feet

The foot acts as a single functional unit, but can be divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot and forefoot.

The hindfoot forms the ankle and heel, and is made up of the talus bone and calcaneus or heel bone. The heel bone is the largest bone in the foot.

The midfoot connects the hindfoot to the forefoot, and consists of one navicular bone, one cuboid bone, and three cuneiform bones. The navicular bone is found in front of the heel bone, and the cuneiform and cuboid bones are arranged in front of the navicular bone.

These bones are connected to five metatarsal bones of the forefoot that form the arch of the foot for shock absorption while walking or running. The forefoot is also made up of the toes or digits, formed by bones called phalanges - three in each toe, except the big toe, which has only two phalanges. The big toe has two additional tiny round sesamoid bones in the ball of the foot, which helps in upward and downward movements of the toe.

Ankle and Foot Joints

There are 33 joints in the ankle and foot. They include:

  • Hinge joints in the ankle, which allow flexion (bending) and extension
  • Gliding joints found in the hindfoot, which allow gliding movements
  • Condyloid joints found in the forefoot and toes, which allow the flexion (bending) and extension, adduction, and abduction (sideward movement).

The joints of the foot and ankle provide stability and support the weight of your body, helping you to walk or run, and adapt to uneven grounds.

Soft Tissues of the Ankle and Foot

Our feet and ankle bones are held in place and supported by various soft tissues such as cartilage, ligaments, muscles, tendons, and bursae.

The joint surface of all the bones of the ankle and foot are lined by a thin, tough, flexible, and slippery surface called the articular cartilage, which acts as a shock absorber and cushion to reduce friction between the bones. The cartilage is lubricated by synovial fluid, which further enables smooth movement of the bones.

Ligaments are tough rope-like tissue that connect bones to other bones, and hold them in place, providing stability to the joints. The plantar fascia is the largest ligament in the foot, originating from the heel bone to the forefoot, it extends along the lower side of the foot and is involved in maintaining the arch of the foot. The plantar fascia ligament stretches and contracts to provide balance and strength to the foot. Lateral ligaments on the outside of the foot and medial ligaments on the inside of the foot provide stability and allow up and down movement of the foot.

The foot is made up of 20 muscles that help in movement. The main muscles include:

  • Anterior tibial muscle, which allows up and down movement of the foot
  • Posterior tibial muscle, which supports the arch
  • Peroneal tibial muscle, which controls movement on the outside of the ankle
  • Extensors, which enable the ankle to raise the toes just before stepping forward
  • Flexors, which stabilize the toes against the floor
  • Smaller muscles that help the toes to lift and curl

Tendons are soft tissues that connect muscles to bones. The largest and strongest tendon in the foot is the Achilles tendon, present at the back of the lower leg around the heel bone. Other tendons include peroneal and anterior and posterior tibialis.

Bursae are small fluid-filled sacs that decrease friction between tendons and bone or skin. They contain special cells called synovial cells that secrete a lubricating fluid.

Midfoot Arthritis

Midfoot Arthritis

Midfoot arthritis is pain and inflammation of the midfoot. It occurs due to damage of cartilage or tissues around the joints. The damage may occur due to injury, aging or autoimmunity. The foot bones are the phalanges, the metaphalanges, and the tarsal bones. The midfoot consists of 5 bones called lesser tarsal bones.

Ankle Rheumatoid Arthritis

Ankle Rheumatoid Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation in a joint as a result of cartilage degeneration causing joint pain, swelling, stiffness, and restricted movement. Arthritis of the foot and ankle joint can occur due to fractures, dislocation, inflammatory disease, or congenital deformity.

Foot Rheumatoid Arthritis

Foot Rheumatoid Arthritis

Arthritis is inflammation in the joint resulting from the degeneration of cartilage causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness resulting in restricted movements. Arthritis of the foot and ankle joint can occur due to fractures, dislocation, inflammatory disease, or congenital deformity.

Foot and Ankle Arthritis

Foot and Ankle Arthritis

Arthritis is the inflammation of joints as a result of degeneration of the smooth cartilage that lines the ends of bones in a joint. This degeneration of the cartilages leads to painful rubbing of the bones, swelling, and stiffness in the joints, resulting in restricted movements.

Forefoot Pain

Forefoot Pain

Forefoot pain, also referred to as metatarsalgia, is a type of pain that occurs in the ball of the foot (along the ends of the metatarsal bones). Generally, forefoot pain is associated with aging.

Foot Pain

Foot Pain

The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As your feet bear the weight of your entire body, they are more prone to injury and pain.

Heel Pain

Heel Pain

The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together support the weight of the body and stress during movement.

Nail Bed Injuries

Nail Bed Injuries

Nail bed injuries such as crush and avulsion injuries commonly occur when the nail bed gets compressed between the hard nail on top and the toe bone below it.

Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury

Lisfranc (Midfoot) Injury

The tarsometatarsal joint or Lisfranc joint is the region in the middle of the foot formed by the articulation of the tarsal bones (a cluster of seven bones) and metatarsal bones (a group of five long bones). This region supports the arch of the foot. Lisfranc or midfoot fractures are breaks in the bones of the midfoot.

Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle

Osteochondral Injuries of the Ankle

The ankle joint is formed by the articulation of the end of the tibia and fibula (shinbones) with the talus (heel bone). Osteochondral injuries, also called osteochondritis dissecans, are injuries to the talus bone. It is characterized by damage to the bone as well as the cartilage covering it. Sometimes, the lower end of the tibia or shinbone may also be affected.

Ankle Ligament Injury

Ankle Ligament Injury

An ankle ligament injury, also known as an ankle sprain, can be caused by a sudden twisting movement of the foot during any athletic event or during daily activities. When stretched beyond its limit, the ligament may partially or completely tear.

Ankle Fractures

Ankle Fractures

Ankle injuries are very common in athletes and individuals performing physical work; often resulting in severe pain and impaired mobility. Pain after ankle injuries can either be from a torn ligament (ankle sprain) or broken bone (ankle fracture).

Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture

Lisfranc (Midfoot) Fracture

The Lisfranc joint or tarsometatarsal joint refers to the region in the middle of the foot. It is a junction between the tarsal bones (bones in the foot arch) and metatarsal bones (five long bones in the foot). Lisfranc fractures can occur due to a fall from a height or a traumatic motor vehicle accident.

Heel Fractures

Heel Fractures

The calcaneus or heel bone is a large bone found at the rear of the foot. A heel fracture is a break in the heel bone due to trauma or various disease conditions.

Talus Fractures

Talus Fractures

The talus is a small bone at the ankle joint that connects the heel bone and the shinbones, enabling up and down movement of the foot.

Foot Fracture

Foot Fracture

Trauma and repeated stress can cause fractures in the foot. Extreme force is required to fracture the bones in the hindfoot. The most common type of foot fracture is a stress fracture that occurs when repeated activities produce small cracks in the bones.

Sesamoid Fracture

Sesamoid Fracture

A sesamoid fracture is a break in the sesamoid bone. Sesamoids are two small, pea-shaped bones located in the ball beneath the big toe joint at the bottom of the foot. Sesamoid bones are connected to muscles and other bones by tendons that envelop these bones.

Ankle Sprain

Ankle Sprain

A sprain is the stretching or tearing of ligaments. Ligaments connect adjacent bones and provide stability to a joint. An ankle sprain is a common injury that occurs when you suddenly fall or twist the ankle joint, or when you land your foot in an awkward position after a jump.

Foot and Ankle Trauma

Foot and Ankle Trauma

Foot and ankle trauma refers to injuries that most commonly occur during sports, exercise or any other physical activity. Trauma may be a result of accidents, poor training practices or use of improper gear.

Heel Spurs

Heel Spurs

The heel is made up of the calcaneus bone and supported by a network of muscles, tendons, ligaments and soft tissues, which together support the weight of the body and stress during movement. A heel spur is a bony protrusion on the underside of the heel bone, which may not be visible to the naked eye.

Cavus Foot Deformity

Cavus Foot Deformity

Cavus foot also referred to as a high arch, is a condition in which the arch on the bottom of the foot that runs from the toes to the heel is arched more than normal. Because of this, excessive weight falls on the ball and heel of the foot when walking or standing, causing pain and instability.

Bunionette

Bunionette

Bunionette also referred to as a tailor’s bunion is a bony lump that grows on the outside of the foot at the base of your little toe. The deformity got its name as q tailor’s bunion when tailors once sat with their legs crossed all day, with the outside edge of their feet rubbing on the ground.

Ganglion and Soft Tissue Tumors

Ganglion and Soft Tissue Tumors

A ganglion is a round, sac-like swelling or a fluid-filled lump under the skin near your foot and ankle joint. It can become bigger or smaller over time and may be visible or not, especially if it is small.

Achillles Tendinitis

Achillles Tendinitis

The Achilles tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue that runs down the back of your lower leg and connects your calf muscle to your heel bone. The tendon is used when you walk, climb, jump, run and stand on your tip toes.

Lesser Toe Deformities

Lesser Toe Deformities

Lesser toe deformity is an abnormality in the anatomy of your toe that occurs as a result of imbalance between the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles.

Achilles Tendon Rupture

Achilles Tendon Rupture

The Achilles tendon is a strong fibrous cord present behind the ankle that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone. It is used when you walk, run and jump. The Achilles tendon ruptures most often in athletes participating in sports that involve running, pivoting and jumping.

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar fasciitis refers to the inflammation of the plantar fascia, a thick band of tissue that is present at the bottom of the foot. It runs from the heel bone to the toes and forms the arch of your foot.

Shin Splints

Shin Splints

Shin splints or medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is pain around the tibia or shinbone due to inflammation of the tendons, muscles and bone tissue. It occurs because of vigorous exercises and sports activities.

Turf Toe

Turf Toe

Turf toe is an injury to the ligament at the base of the big toe. It is a painful condition that usually results from jamming the toe into the ground or excessive backward bending of the toe.

Achilles Tendon Bursitis

Achilles Tendon Bursitis

Achilles tendon bursitis or retrocalcaneal bursitis is a condition that commonly occurs in athletes. It is a painful condition caused by the swelling of the bursa, a fluid-filled sac that is located at the back of the heel under the Achilles tendon.

Bunion

Bunion

A bunion is a bony protuberance that appears on the outer surface of the big toe when it angles toward the adjacent toe. It is an extra bone and a fluid-filled sac that grows at the base of the big toe.

Athlete's Foot

Athlete's Foot

Athlete's foot, also known as tinea pedis, is a fungal infection that forms on the skin of the foot. It is characterized by itchy, moist, white, scaly lesions between the toes that can spread to the sole of the foot.

Intoeing

Intoeing

Intoeing, also called “pigeon-toed”, is an abnormal condition characterized by the inward facing of the toe or foot instead of being straight. You may observe intoeing in your child at an early age when they start walking.

Morton's Neuroma

Morton's Neuroma

Morton’s neuroma refers to a nerve injury that occurs between the toes, usually the third and fourth toes. This causes pain and thickening of the nerve tissue.

Flatfoot

Flatfoot

Flatfoot, also known as “fallen arches” or Pes planus, is a deformity in children’s feet where the arch that runs along the sole of the foot collapses to the ground or is not formed at all. Flatfoot is normal in the first few years of life as the arch of the foot usually develops between the age of 3 and 5 years.

Fungal Nails

Fungal Nails

Fungal infections are common in nails and occur most often in toenails. Termed as onychomycosis, nail fungus affects the keratin, the hard material that makes up the nail and can include the entire nail or a portion of the nail, along with the nail root, plate or bed.

Foot Infections

Foot Infections

Foot infections may occur after trauma to the foot or loss of tissue because of contamination from foreign material and/or bacteria or fungus. Infections can occur in healthy individuals as well as in those whose health is compromised.

Sesamoiditis

Sesamoiditis

Sesamoids are two small, pea-shaped bones located in the ball beneath the big toe joint at the bottom of the foot. Sesamoid bones are connected to muscles and other bones by tendons that envelop these bones. Sesamoids help the big toe move normally and absorb the weight placed on the ball.

Toenail Conditions

Toenail Conditions

Nails are an extension of the top layer of the skin and are composed of a nail plate (top layer) and nail bed (skin below the nail plate). The nail matrix is the region where your toenail begins to grow. Nails are made of keratin (protein) and help to protect your fingers and toes from injury.

Foot Drop

Foot Drop

Foot drop, also known as drop foot, is a sign of an underlying muscular, neurological or anatomical condition, where you are unable to lift the front part of your foot, which results in the dragging of the foot.

Hammertoe

Hammertoe

A hammertoe is a deformity of a lesser toe (second through fifth toes), where the toe is bent upward at the toe’s middle joint, resembling a hammer. The bent portion may rub against the shoe causing pain, irritation and develop corns.

Nerve Conditions of the Foot

Nerve Conditions of the Foot

The foot is composed of bones, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and tendons. Nerve conditions of the foot can range from minor nerve injuries to serious conditions like nerve entrapment and damage. A podiatrist is a doctor specializing in the treatment of foot problems including nerve conditions.

Claw Toe

Claw Toe

Claw toe is a deformity where a toe bends and appears like a bird’s claw. The affected toe is bent upward from the joint at the ball of the foot, and downward at the joints in the middle and tip of the toe to curl under the foot. Hard, thick skin called corns may develop under the ball of the foot or on the top of the affected toe, causing pain while walking.

Congenital Limb Deformities

Congenital Limb Deformities

Limb deformities can be congenital (present at birth) or develop at a later stage because of a fracture, infection, arthritis or tumor.

Congenital Deformity and Clubfoot

Congenital Deformity and Clubfoot

Congenital deformities of the lower limbs are developmental disorders that are present at birth, causing alterations in the shape and appearance of the legs. Several factors such as genetics, teratogenic drugs, and chemicals can cause congenital deformities.

Ingrown toenail

Ingrown toenail

An ingrown toenail is a common and painful condition of the toe. It occurs when the side or corner of the nail grows inwards and penetrates the skin of the toe. Pain is often accompanied by swelling and redness. The big toe is affected most often.

Corns

Corns

A corn is a circular area of thickened skin developed because of continuous friction or pressure. They usually develop on the soles of feet or on the top or sides of toes and appear as yellowish dead tissue surrounding an area of tenderness.

Heel Cracks

Heel Cracks

Heel cracks or fissures are the splitting or cracking of the skin on the outer edge of the heel due to excessive drying and pressure that causes the skin to expand sideways. In some people, thick, hard layers of the skin (calluses) can cause flakes and deep cracks.

Sever's Disease

Sever's Disease

Sever’s disease is a painful inflammation of the growth plate in the heel. Growth plates are areas at the end of children’s bones that undergo changes so bone growth can occur. During this time, the muscles and tendons may not grow as fast as the bone causing tightness and pressure at the back of the heel.

Mallet Toe

Mallet Toe

Mallet toe is a deformity where the toe abnormally bends downward, resembling a hammer or mallet. The bones at the tip of the toe are connected by the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP). Muscle imbalance or damage to the tendons or ligaments of the DIP causes contraction and deformity.

Diabetic Foot Conditions

Diabetic Foot Conditions

Diabetes is a chronic condition that is characterized by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Diabetic patients are at high risk for developing chronic wounds, especially in the feet. If left untreated, these wounds can cause serious problems that can lead to infections and eventually gangrene, which may require amputation.

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

Posterior Tibial Tendon Dysfunction

The posterior tibial tendon passes through the ankle to attach the calf muscle with the bones of the midfoot. It provides stability to the arch and supports the foot while walking. Inflammation or a tear of this tendon as a result of injury may cause dysfunction, leading to pain and the development of a flatfoot.

Plantar Warts

Plantar Warts

Warts are harmless outgrowths on the skin caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. They grow on all body parts including face, fingers, feet, legs, hands, knees, inside your mouth, and on the genital and rectal areas. Plantar warts appear on the bottom or soles of your feet.

Stress Fractures of Foot and Ankle

Stress Fractures of Foot and Ankle

A stress fracture is described as a small crack in the bone which occurs from an overuse injury of a bone. It commonly develops in the weight-bearing bones of the lower leg and foot.

Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion)

Bunionette (Tailor's Bunion)

Bunionette, also called Tailor’s bunion, is a bony lump formed along the outside of the little toe at the base. It occurs when the very bottom bone (fifth metatarsal bone) of the little toe enlarges or shifts outward. Sometimes, it can be a bony spur (an outgrowth of bone) on the side of the fifth metatarsal bone head.

Achilles Tendinitis

Achilles Tendinitis

The Achilles tendon is a tough band of fibrous tissue that runs down the back of your lower leg and connects your calf muscle to your heel bone. The tendon is used when you walk, climb, jump, run and stand on your tip toes.

Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle

Osteochondral Lesions of the Ankle

The tibia and the fibula bones of the lower leg join with the talus bone to form the ankle joint. The talus bone is an important bone located between the tibia and fibula and the heel bone (calcaneus). OCL or OCD is the damage to the cartilage and the talus bone of the ankle joint.

Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

Stiff Big Toe (Hallux Rigidus)

A stiff big toe, also called hallux rigidus, is a form of degenerative arthritis affecting the joint where the big toe (hallux) attaches to the foot. The toe typically becomes stiff at the base and is sometimes called a “frozen joint”.

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

The tarsal tunnel is a narrow passageway that lies on the inside of your ankle and runs into the foot. It encloses arteries, veins, tendons and nerves that supply the foot. The tunnel holds very limited space as it is formed between bones and overlying fibrous tissues. Within the tarsal tunnel lies and runs a nerve called ‘posterior tibial nerve’.

Vertical Talus

Vertical Talus

Talus is a small bone in your ankle joint. It sits between the heel bone (calcaneus) and the confluence of two bones of the lower leg (tibia and fibula). Talus connects the lower leg to the foot to form the ankle and helps transfer weight across the ankle joint.

Ankle Joint Replacement

Ankle Joint Replacement

Ankle joint replacement, also known as total ankle arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve pain and immobility due to severe end-stage arthritis that has not responded to non-surgical treatments. The goal of ankle joint replacement surgery is to eliminate your pain and increase the mobility of your ankle joint.

Ankle Arthroscopy

Ankle Arthroscopy

Ankle arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an arthroscope, a small, soft, flexible tube with a light and video camera at the end, is inserted into the ankle joint to evaluate and treat a variety of conditions.

Foot Reconstruction

Foot Reconstruction

Foot reconstruction is a surgery performed to correct the structures of the foot and restore the natural functionality of the foot that has been lost due to injury or illness. Ideally, any foot surgery for reconstruction is done to improve the appearance and function of the foot so that you can maintain your quality of life.

Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery

Minimally Invasive Bunion Surgery

Minimally invasive bunion surgery, also known as keyhole bunion surgery, is a procedure to treat a foot condition called a bunion or hallux valgus. During minimally invasive bunion surgery, a few small incisions are made to access the bone around the bunion

Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

Minimally Invasive Foot Surgery

Minimally invasive foot surgery (MIFS) uses the latest advanced technology to treat foot and ankle pain caused by a variety of conditions. Special surgical instruments, devices, and advanced imaging techniques are used to visualize and perform the surgery through small incisions.

Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

Treatment of Foot and Ankle Sports Injuries

Injuries during sports are common. They can result from accidents, inadequate training, improper use of protective devices, or insufficient stretching or warm-up exercises. Injuries to the foot and ankle are common while playing sports such as football, hockey, skating and in weekend athletes.

Subtalar Arthrodesis

Subtalar Arthrodesis

The subtalar joint is a complex joint located below the ankle joint and is formed by the union of the heel (calcaneus) and the talus (ankle) bone. The subtalar joint allows side-to-side movement of the foot.

Cavovarus Foot Correction

Cavovarus Foot Correction

To support the entire body’s weight on your two feet, the inner middle portion of each foot (midfoot) is raised off the ground to form an arch. A cavovarus foot deformity is characterized by a higher-than-normal arch of the inner midfoot.

Achilles Tendon Repair

Achilles Tendon Repair

Tendons are the soft tissues connecting muscle to bone. The Achilles tendon is the longest tendon in the body and is present behind the ankle, joining the calf muscles with the heel bone. Contraction of the calf muscles tightens the Achilles tendon and pulls the heel, enabling the foot and toe movements necessary for walking, running and jumping.

Ankle Arthrodesis

Ankle Arthrodesis

Ankle arthrodesis is the surgical fusion of bones that form the ankle joint. The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, talus, and the fibula bones.

Lesser Toe Surgery

Lesser Toe Surgery

Lesser toe surgery is an operation to correct deformities of the lesser toes other than the big toe. Some of the common lesser toe deformities include hammer toe, claw toe, and mallet toe.

Ankle Instability Surgery

Ankle Instability Surgery

Ankle instability is a chronic condition characterized by the recurrent slipping of the outer side of the ankle. Instability is generally noticed during movement of the ankle joint, but can also occur while standing.

Complex Foot and Ankle Surgeries

Complex Foot and Ankle Surgeries

Complex foot and ankle surgeries are procedures employed to treat foot and ankle structures with deformities, injuries, structural issues, and damage from diseases like diabetes or arthritis.

Bunionectomy

Bunionectomy

A bunionectomy is a surgical procedure to remove a bunion. A bunion, also called a hallux valgus, is an enlargement of bone or soft tissues around the joint at the base of the big toe that results in the formation of a bump.

Tendon Transfer

Tendon Transfer

In a tendon transfer procedure, a healthy tendon is transferred to replace the damaged tendon and restore the normal movement of the foot.

Internal and External Fixation of Foot and Ankle Fractures

Internal and External Fixation of Foot and Ankle Fractures

Foot and ankle fractures are breaks or cracks in any bone of your foot and ankle joint. Fixation of fractures is a surgical method of reconnecting the broken or cracked bones and fixing them in the correct place using orthopedic hardware.

Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction

Foot & Ankle Deformity Correction

Foot and Ankle deformity correction is the repair of the abnormality by restoring the normal alignment of the bones in the foot & ankle, surgically or non-surgically.

Foot and Ankle Examination

Foot and Ankle Examination

Foot and Ankle conditions typically occur due to injury of the muscles, ligaments or bones, due to aging, or certain disorders including gout, bunion, arthritis, claw toes, bursitis, hammertoes, stress fracture, etc.

Foot Injections

Foot Injections

Foot injections are steroids that are injected into your foot to relieve pain and inflammation. Cortisol is a hormone that is produced in the human body and functions to reduce stress and inflammation. Steroids are synthetic drugs that resemble cortisol and are used in treating joint pain.

Foot Care

Foot Care

The feet help maintain proper posture and allow movement. As the feet bear the entire weight of the body and are involved in most activities, they are more prone to problems such as calluses, corns, cracks, infections, and traumatic injuries.

Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain

Non-Surgical Treatment for Foot and Ankle Pain

The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. Normally, foot pain can be treated with home treatments but may take time to heal. However, in cases of severe injury, adequate evaluation and treatment is required.

Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation

Foot and Ankle Rehabilitation

The foot is composed of different structures including bones, ligaments, tendons, and muscles. As the feet bear the weight of our body, they are more prone to injury and pain. A foot injury or foot surgery may leave you immobile for a period of time.

Atlas Orthopaedics
970 Woodstock Parkway, Suite 310, Woodstock, GA 30188